Research Design

The research has been conducted in different contexts to compare similarities and differences of the Making processes, including a public library in Colorado, a middle school library and a high school class in Oklahoma, and a museum in Texas. The research settings include:

  • Irving Middle School Library Meteorology Makers’ Club. Norman, OK (Fall 2014)
  • Anythink Public Library Teen Studio. Thornton, CO (Fall 2015)
  • Norman High School Maker Class. Norman, OK (Fall 2016)
  • Dallas Museum of Arts. Dallas, TX (Spring 2017)

The public library and museum were selected among the 24 Learning Labs, funded by IMLS/the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. To learn more about the Learning Labs, please visit YOUmedia Network at

The project is a mixed methods research and applied multiple data collection methods, including:

Process mapping activities


Sense-Making Methodology group interviews (Koh, 2013)


Individual interviews


Participant observation


Maker process surveys

process survey

In addition, the project includes a longitudinal study, tracing four students’ making processes from their middle school to high schools years.



Koh, K. (2013). Adolescents’ information creating-behavior embedded in digital media practices using Scratch, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64 (9), 1826-1841. doi:10.1002/asi.22878